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Maternal, Infant, and Child Health

Morbidity and Mortality

MICH-1     Reduce the rate of fetal and infant deaths
Baseline: 6.2 fetal deaths at 20 or more weeks of gestation per 1,000 live births and fetal deaths occurred in 2005
Target: 5.6 fetal deaths per 1,000 live births and fetal deaths
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Sources: National Vital Statistics System-Fetal Death (NVSS-FD), CDC/NCHS; National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 6.6 fetal and infant deaths per 1,000 live births and fetal deaths occurred during the perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 7 days after birth) in 2005
Target: 5.9 perinatal deaths per 1,000 live births and fetal deaths
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Sources: Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS; National Vital Statistics System-Fetal Death (NVSS-FD), CDC/NCHS
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MICH-1.3 Reduce the rate of all infant deaths (within 1 year) Leading Health Indicators

Leading Health Indicators are a subset of Healthy People 2020 objectives selected to communicate high-priority health issues.

Baseline: 6.7 infant deaths per 1,000 live births occurred within the first year of life in 2006
Target: 6.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 4.5 neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births occurred within the first 28 days of life in 2006
Target: 4.1 neonatal deaths per 1,000 live births
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 2.2 postneonatal deaths per 1,000 live births occurred between 28 days and 1 year of life in 2006
Target: 2.0 postneonatal deaths per 1,000 live births
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 1.4 infant deaths per 1,000 live births were attributed to birth defects (all birth defects) in 2006
Target: 1.3 infant deaths per 1,000 live births
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 0.38 infant deaths per 1,000 live births were attributed to congenital heart and vascular defects in 2006
Target: 0.34 infant deaths per 1,000 live births
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 0.55 infant deaths per 1,000 live births were attributed to sudden infant death syndrome in 2006
Target: 0.50 infant deaths per 1,000 live births
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 48.6 deaths within the first year of life per 1,000 infants diagnosed with Down syndrome occurred in 2005–06
Target: 43.7 deaths within the first year of life per 1,000 infants with Down syndrome
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN), CDC/NCBDDD
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MICH-3     Reduce the rate of child deaths
Baseline: 29.4 deaths among children aged 1 to 4 years per 100,000 population occurred in 2007
Target: 26.5 deaths per 100,000 population
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Mortality (NVSS-M), CDC/NCHS; Population Estimates, Census
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Baseline: 13.8 deaths among children aged 5 to 9 years per 100,000 population occurred in 2007
Target: 12.4 deaths per 100,000 population
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Mortality (NVSS-M), CDC/NCHS; Population Estimates, Census
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MICH-4     Reduce the rate of adolescent and young adult deaths
Baseline: 16.5 deaths among adolescents aged 10 to 14 years per 100,000 population occurred in 2007
Target: 14.8 deaths per 100,000 population
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Mortality (NVSS-M), CDC/NCHS; Population Estimates, Census
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Baseline: 60.3 deaths among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years per 100,000 population occurred in 2007
Target: 54.3 deaths per 100,000 population
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Mortality (NVSS-M), CDC/NCHS; Population Estimates, Census
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Baseline: 98.1 deaths among young adults aged 20 to 24 years per 100,000 population occurred in 2007
Target: 88.3 deaths per 100,000 population
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Mortality (NVSS-M), CDC/NCHS; Population Estimates, Census
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Baseline: 12.7 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births occurred in 2007
Target: 11.4 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Sources: National Vital Statistics System-Mortality (NVSS-M), CDC/NCHS; National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 31.1 percent of pregnant females suffered complications during hospitalized labor and delivery in 2007
Target: 28.0 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), CDC/NCHS
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MICH-7     Reduce cesarean births among low-risk (full-term, singleton, and vertex presentation) women
Baseline: 26.5 percent of low-risk females with no prior cesarean birth had a cesarean birth in 2007
Target: 23.9 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 90.8 percent of low-risk females giving birth with a prior cesarean birth had a cesarean birth in 2007
Target: 81.7 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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MICH-8     Reduce low birth weight (LBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW)
Baseline: 8.2 percent of live births were low birth weight in 2007
Target: 7.8 percent
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 1.5 percent of live births were very low birth weight in 2007
Target: 1.4 percent
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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MICH-9     Reduce preterm births
MICH-9.1 Reduce total preterm births Leading Health Indicators

Leading Health Indicators are a subset of Healthy People 2020 objectives selected to communicate high-priority health issues.

Baseline: 12.7 percent of live births were preterm in 2007
Target: 11.4 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 9.0 percent of live births were late preterm or occurred at 34 to 36 weeks of gestation in 2007
Target: 8.1 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 1.6  of live births occurred at 32 to 33 weeks of gestation in 2007
Target: 1.4 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 2.0 percent of live births occurred at less than 32 weeks of gestation in 2007
Target: 1.8 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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Pregnancy Health and Behaviors

MICH-10     Increase the proportion of pregnant women who receive early and adequate prenatal care
Baseline: 70.8 percent of females delivering a live birth received prenatal care beginning in the first trimester in 2007
Target: 77.9 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 70.5 percent of pregnant females received early and adequate prenatal care in 2007
Target: 77.6 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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MICH-11     Increase abstinence from alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit drugs among pregnant women
Baseline: 89.4 percent of pregnant females aged 15 to 44 years reported abstaining from alcohol in the past 30 days in 2007–08
Target: 98.3 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
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Baseline: 95.0 percent of pregnant females aged 15 to 44 years reported abstaining from binge drinking during the past 30 days in 2007–08
Target: 100 percent
Target-Setting Method: Total coverage
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
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Baseline: 89.6 percent of females delivering a live birth reported abstaining from smoking cigarettes during pregnancy in 2007
Target: 98.6 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 94.8 percent of pregnant females aged 15 to 44 years reported abstaining from illicit drugs in the past 30 days in 2007–08
Target: 100 percent
Target-Setting Method: Total coverage
Data Source: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), SAMHSA
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Potential Data Sources: California's Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA), California Department of Public Health (CDPH); Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), CDC/NCCDPHP
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Preconception Health and Behaviors

Baseline: 23.8 percent of nonpregnant females aged 15 to 44 years reported a usual daily total intake of at least 400 µg of folic acid from fortified foods or dietary supplements in 2003–06
Target: 26.2 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 24.9 percent of nonpregnant females aged 15 to 44 years had lower red blood cell folate concentrations in 2007–10
Target: 22.4 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS
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MICH-16     Increase the proportion of women delivering a live birth who received preconception care services and practiced key recommended preconception health behaviors
Baseline: 30.1 percent of females delivering a recent live birth took multivitamins/folic acid every day in the month prior to pregnancy, as reported in 2007
Target: 33.1 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Sources: California's Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA), California Department of Public Health (CDPH); Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), CDC/NCCDPHP
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Baseline: 77.6 percent of females delivering a recent live birth did not smoke in the 3 months prior to pregnancy, as reported in 2007
Target: 85.4 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), CDC/NCCDPHP
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Baseline: 51.3 percent of females delivering a recent live birth did not drink alcohol in the 3 months prior to pregnancy, as reported in 2007
Target: 56.4 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Sources: California's Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA), California Department of Public Health (CDPH); Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), CDC/NCCDPHP
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Baseline: 48.5 percent of females delivering a recent live birth had a normal weight (i.e., a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9) prior to pregnancy, as reported in 2007
Target: 53.4 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Sources: California's Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA), California Department of Public Health (CDPH); Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), CDC/NCCDPHP
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Potential Data Sources: California's Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA), California Department of Public Health (CDPH); Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), CDC/NCCDPHP
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MICH-17     Reduce the proportion of persons aged 18 to 44 years who have impaired fecundity (i.e., a physical barrier preventing pregnancy or carrying a pregnancy to term)
Baseline: 12.7 percent of females aged 18 to 44 years had impaired fecundity in 2002
Target: 11.4 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), CDC/NCHS
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Postpartum Health and Behavior

Potential Data Sources: California's Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA), California Department of Public Health (CDPH); Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), CDC/NCCDPHP
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Infant Care

Baseline: 69.0 percent of infants were put to sleep on their backs in 2007
Target: 75.9 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Sources: California's Maternal and Infant Health Assessment (MIHA), California Department of Public Health (CDPH); Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), CDC/NCCDPHP
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MICH-21     Increase the proportion of infants who are breastfed
Baseline: 74.0 percent of infants born in 2006 were ever breastfed, as reported in 2007–09
Target: 81.9 percent
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: National Immunization Survey (NIS), CDC/NCIRD and CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 43.5 percent of infants born in 2006 were breastfed at 6 months, as reported in 2007–09
Target: 60.6 percent
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: National Immunization Survey (NIS), CDC/NCIRD and CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 22.7 percent of infants born in 2006 were breastfed at 1 year, as reported in 2007–09
Target: 34.1 percent
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: National Immunization Survey (NIS), CDC/NCIRD and CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 33.6 percent of infants born in 2006 were breastfed exclusively through 3 months, as reported in 2007–09
Target: 46.2 percent
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: National Immunization Survey (NIS), CDC/NCIRD and CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 14.1 percent of infants born in 2006 were breastfed exclusively through 6 months, as reported in 2007–09
Target: 25.5 percent
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: National Immunization Survey (NIS), CDC/NCIRD and CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 25 percent of employers reported providing an onsite lactation/mother’s room in 2009
Target: 38 percent
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: Employee Benefits Survey, Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM)
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Baseline: 24.2 percent of breastfed newborns born in 2006 received formula supplementation within the first 2 days of life, as reported in 2007–09
Target: 14.2 percent
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: National Immunization Survey (NIS), CDC/NCIRD and CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 2.9 percent of 2007 live births occurred in facilities that provide recommended care for lactating mothers and their babies, as reported in 2009
Target: 8.1 percent
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: Breastfeeding Report Card, CDC/NCCDPHP
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Disability and Other Impairments

Baseline: 3.6 cases of fetal alcohol syndrome per 10,000 live births in 2006 were suspected or confirmed among children born in 2001–04 (standardized to 2006 U.S. live births)
Target: Not applicable
Target-Setting Method: This measure is being tracked for informational purposes. If warranted, a target will be set during the decade.
Data Source: Fetal Alcohol Surveillance System Network (FASSNet), CDC/NCBDDD
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Baseline: 15.1 percent of children aged 3 to 10 years diagnosed with a disorder through newborn bloodspot screening experienced developmental delay requiring special education services in 1991–2004
Target: 13.6 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program (MADDSP), CDC/NCBDDD
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Baseline: 50.0 percent of children aged 8 years with cerebral palsy were born as low birth weight infants (less than 2,500 grams) as reported in 2006
Target: 45.0 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network (ADDM), CDC/NCBDDD
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MICH-28     Reduce occurrence of neural tube defects
Baseline: 34.2 cases of spina bifida per 100,000 live births in 2005–06
Target: 30.8 cases of spina bifida per 100,000 live births
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN), CDC/NCBDDD
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Baseline: 24.6 cases of anencephaly per 100,000 live births in 2005–06
Target: 22.1 cases of anencephaly per 100,000 live births
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Birth Defects Prevention Network (NBDPN), CDC/NCBDDD; National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS
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MICH-29     Increase the proportion of young children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental delays who are screened, evaluated, and enrolled in early intervention services in a timely manner
Baseline: 22.6 percent of children aged 10 to 35 months were screened for an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental delays in the past year as reported in 2007
Target: 24.9 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), HRSA/MCHB and CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 39.0 percent of children aged 8 years with an ASD had a first evaluation by 36 months of age, as reported in 2006
Target: 42.9 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network (ADDM), CDC/NCBDDD
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Baseline: 52.4 percent of children aged 8 years with an ASD were enrolled in special services by 48 months of age, as reported in 2006
Target: 57.6 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program (MADDSP), CDC/NCBDDD
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Health Services

MICH-30     Increase the proportion of children, including those with special health care needs, who have access to a medical home
Baseline: 57.5 percent of children under age 18 years had access to a medical home in 2007
Target: 63.3 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), HRSA/MCHB and CDC/NCHS
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Baseline: 47.1 percent of children under age 18 years with special health care needs had access to a medical home in 2005–06
Target: 51.8 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), HRSA/MCHB and CDC/NCHS
Data:
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MICH-31     Increase the proportion of children with special health care needs who receive their care in family-centered, comprehensive, and coordinated systems
Baseline: 20.4 percent of children aged 0 through 11 years with special health care needs received their care in family-centered, comprehensive, and coordinated systems in 2005–06
Target: 22.4 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), HRSA/MCHB and CDC/NCHS
Data:
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Baseline: 13.8 percent of children aged 12 through 17 years with special health care needs received their care in family-centered, comprehensive, and coordinated systems in 2005–06
Target: 15.1 percent
Target-Setting Method: 10 percent improvement
Data Source: National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), HRSA/MCHB and CDC/NCHS
Data:
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MICH-32     Increase appropriate newborn blood-spot screening and follow-up testing
Baseline: 21 States verified through linkage with vital records that all newborns were screened shortly after birth for conditions mandated by their State-sponsored screening program in 2010
Target: 45 States (44 States and the District of Columbia)
Target-Setting Method: Projection/trend analysis
Data Source: National Newborn Screen and Genetic Resource Center (NNSGRC), University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Pediatrics (UTHSCSA)
Data:
Data for this objective HP2020 data for this objective
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