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Environmental Health

Alternative transportation to work, 2006–08 to 2008–10

Increase desired

EH-2.1-2.4

Objectives EH-2.1 through EH-2.4

SOURCE: American Community Survey (ACS), Department of Commerce/Census Bureau.
NOTE: Data are for the proportion of workers aged 16 and over who used alternative modes of transportation for work: bicycling (objective EH-2.1), walking (objective EH-2.2), mass transit (objective EH-2.3), or telecommuting (objective EH-2.4).

The proportion of workers aged 16 and over who bicycled (0.5%) or walked (2.8%) to work did not change from 2006–08 to 2008–10. There was a slight increase from 2006–08 to 2008–10 in the proportion of workers aged 16 and over who used mass transit (from 4.9% to 5.0%) or telecommuted (4.0% to 4.2%); however, data were unavailable to assess statistical significance of this change.


Alternative transportation to work, 2006–08

Increase desired

EH-2.2-2.4

Objectives EH-2.2 through EH-2.4

SOURCE: American Community Survey (ACS), Department of Commerce/Census Bureau.
NOTES: Data are for the proportion of workers aged 16 and over who used alternative modes of transportation for work: walking (objective EH-2.2), mass transit (objective EH-2.3), or telecommuting (objective EH-2.4). The single race categories include persons who reported only one racial group.

In 2006–08, 2.8% of workers aged 16 and over walked to work, 4.9% used mass transit, and 4.0% telecommuted. Rates varied by race; however, data were unavailable to assess statistical significance of the differences in rates. For example, 11.7% of black workers aged 16 and over used mass transit, compared with 10.5% of Asian and 3.2% of white workers aged 16 and over. Additionally, 4.3% of American Indian or Alaska Native workers aged 16 and over walked to work, compared with 4.0% of Asian, 2.9% of black and 2.7% of white workers aged 16 and over.


Pesticide exposure resulting in visit to health care facility, 1997–2010

Decrease desired

EH-10

Objective EH-10

SOURCE: National Poison Data System (NPDS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC).
NOTE: Data are for the number of pesticide exposures that resulted in visits to a health care facility.

The number of pesticide exposures resulting in visits to a health care facility decreased 36.0% between 1997 and 2010, from 22,933 to 14,667.


Exposure to environmental chemicals—lead and cadmium, 1999–2000 to 2007–08

Decrease desired

EH-20.2 and 20.3 graph

Objectives EH-20.2 and EH-20.3

SOURCES: National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS.
NOTE: Data are for the concentration levels of cadmium (in µg/L, objective EH-20.2) and lead (in µg/dL, objective EH-20.2) in blood samples at which 95% of the population aged 1 year and over was below the measured level.

The concentration level of lead in blood samples at which 95% of the population aged 1 year and over was below the measured level decreased 26.0% from 1999–2000 to 2007–08, from 5.0 to 3.7 µg/dL. On the other hand, the concentration level of cadmium in blood samples at which 95% of the population aged 1 year and over was below the measured level increased 8.6% from 1999–2000 to 2007–08, from 1.4 to 1.5 µg/L.


Exposure to environmental chemicals—Bisphenol A, 2003–04 to 2007–08

Decrease desired

EH-20.15

Objective EH-20.15

SOURCES: National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS.
NOTES: Data are for the concentration level (in µg/g of creatinine) of Bisphenol A (2,2-bis[4-Hydroxyphenyl] propane) (creatinine corrected) in urine samples at which 95% of the population aged 6 years and over was below the measured level. Respondents were asked to select one or more races. The categories `white, non-Hispanic’ and `black, non-Hispanic’ include persons who reported only one racial group. Persons of Mexican-American origin may be any race.

The concentration level of Bisphenol A (2,2-bis[4-Hydroxyphenyl] propane) (creatinine corrected) in urine samples at which 95% of the population aged 6 years and over was below the measured level (i.e., the 95th percentile) decreased 10.7% from 2003–04 to 2007–08, from 11.2 to 10.0 µg/g, and varied by race and ethnicity. For example, in 2007–08, the non-Hispanic white population aged 6 years and over had a 95th percentile of 10.9 µg/g, compared with 8.9 µg/g for the Mexican American and 8.6 µg/g for the non-Hispanic black population aged 6 years and over.


Exposure to environmental chemicals—perchlorate, 2003–04 to 2007–08

Decrease desired

EH-20.16

Objective EH-20.16

SOURCES: National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC/NCEH; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), CDC/NCHS.
NOTES: Data are for the concentration levels (in µg/g of creatinine) of perchlorate (creatinine corrected) in urine samples at which 95% of the population aged 6 years and over was below the measured level. Respondents were asked to select one or more races. The categories `white, non-Hispanic’ and `black, non-Hispanic’ include persons who reported only one racial group. Persons of Mexican-American origin may be any race.

The concentration level of perchlorate (creatinine corrected) in urine samples at which 95% of the population aged 6 years and over was below the measured level (i.e., the 95th percentile) increased 26.6% from 2003–04 to 2007–08, from 12.4 to 15.7 µg/g, and varied by race and ethnicity. For example, in 2007–08, the Mexican American population aged 6 years and over had a 95th percentile of 15.7 µg/g, compared with 11.8 µg/g for the non-Hispanic black population aged 6 years and over.

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