Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is caused by maternal alcohol used during pregnancy and is one of the leading causes of preventable birth defects and developmental disabilities. The 2001-2004 estimate for FAS was determined using data from seven state-based FAS surveillance programs. The analyses included children who were born during 2001-2004 to a mother residing in a surveillance area at the time of the birth of the child, and who met the surveillance case definition for confirmed or probable FAS. The denominator consisted of live births to women residing in the selected surveillance area as determined by birth certificate data. Race/ethnic specific prevalence were calculated using mother’s race/ethnicity from birth certificates. Child’s race/ethnicity was used if mother’s race/ethnicity was not available. Prevalence calculations were standardized to the race/ethnic distribution of the 2006 US live births according to NCHS.