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Adolescent Health Data DetailsNew

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
68.7 (2008)
Target
75.6
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of adolescents aged 10 to 17 years who received a wellness checkup during the past 12 months when not sick or injured
Denominator
Number of adolescents aged 10 -17 years
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2008 National Health Interview Survey:

[NUMERATOR:]

DURING THE PAST 12 MONTHS, did [fill1: alias] receive a well-child check-up, that is a general check-up, when [fill2: he/she] was not sick or injured?

  1. Yes
  2. No
  3. Refused
  4. Don't know
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH); Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (HRSA/MCHB and CDC/NCHS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Yes
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
82.4 (2007)
Target
90.6
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years participating in one or more organized extra-curricular and/or out-of-school activities
Denominator
Number of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health:

[NUMERATOR:]

During the past 12 months, was [S.C.] on a sports team or did [he/she] take sports lessons after school or on weekends?

  1. YES
  2. NO
  3. DON’T KNOW
  4. REFUSED

During the past 12 months, did [he/she] participate in any clubs or organizations after school or on weekends?

  1. YES
  2. NO
  3. DON’T KNOW
  4. REFUSED

During the past 12 months, did [he/she] participate in any other organized events or activities?

  1. YES
  2. NO
  3. DON’T KNOW
  4. REFUSED
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Responses to the three questions were combined into a single indicator that included 12 to 17 year olds who participated in one or more organized activities. In 2007, the third question was asked if the respondent answered "no" to the other two questions. In 2013, the third question was revised to "During the past 12 months, did [he/she] participate in any other organized activities or lessons, such as music, dance, language, or other arts?," and asked of all children

Children with special health care needs are identified by parents’ reports that their child has a health problem expected to last at least 12 months and which requires prescription medication, more services than most children, special therapies, or which limits his or her ability to do things most children can do.

Trend Issues
The 2011/12 survey included the addition of cell phones to the sample. This has implications for the comparability of items between 2007 and 2011/12.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

In 2012, the original baseline was revised from 82.5 to 82.4 percent due to a change in the rounding method used. At launch conventional rounding was used for the displayed baseline; however Healthy People 2020 is using the 'round half to evens' rule for the display values this decade. The target was adjusted from 90.8 to 90.6 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method. There was a change in the way questions are asked in the 2011/12 survey. In 2007, the question, "During the past 12 months, did [he/she] participate in any other organized events or activities?" was only asked of children with a "no" response to both of the other two numerator questions listed. In 2011 it was asked for all children. Also in 2011, the wording of the question was changed to read, "During the past 12 months, did [he/she] participate in any other organized activities or lessons, such as music, dance, language, or other arts?"

AH-3 Increase the proportion of adolescents who are connected to a parent or other positive adult caregiver

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH); Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Yes
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
75.6 (2008)
Target
83.2
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who have an adult in their lives with whom they can talk about serious problems
Denominator
Number of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

[NUMERATOR:]

If you wanted to talk to someone about a serious problem, which of the following people would you turn to?

  1. There is nobody I can talk to about serious problems
  2. My mother or father or guardian
  3. My boyfriend or girlfriend
  4. Some other adult
  5. Some other person or persons
  6. Don't know/Refused
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Adolescents aged 12 to 17 are considered to have an adult in their life with whom they can talk about serious problems if they responded either (2) My mother or father or guardian or (4) Some other adult.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result, in 2013 the original baseline was revised from 75.7 to 75.6 percent. The target was adjusted from 83.3 to 83.2 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH); Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (HRSA/MCHB and CDC/NCHS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
82.1 (2007)
Target
90.3
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years whose parents usually or always attend organized extra-curricular and/or out-of-school activities in which they participate
Denominator
Number of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who participate in one or more organized extra-curricular and/or out-of-school activities
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health:

[NUMERATOR:]

During the past 12 months, how often did you attend events or activities that [S.C.] participated in? Would you say never, sometimes, usually or always?:

  1. Never
  2. Sometimes
  3. Usually
  4. Always
  5. Don't know
  6. Refused
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The indicator is based on the combined responses of parents who either usually or always attend the events and activities their adolescent participates in.

Children with special health care needs are identified by parents’ reports that their child has a health problem expected to last at least 12 months and which requires prescription medication, more services than most children, special therapies, or which limits his or her ability to do things most children can do.

Trend Issues
The 2011/12 survey included the addition of cell phones to the sample. This has implications for the comparability of items between 2007 and 2011/12.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Yes
Measure
percent 
Numerator
Number of 17 year old youth in foster care indicating readiness
Denominator
Number of 17 year olds in foster care who completed the NYTD survey
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the FFY2011 NYTD Survey:

E37. Are you currently employed full-time? (Y,N,Declined)

E38. Are you currently employed part-time {Y,N,Declined)

E39. In the past year, did you complete a apprenticeship, internship, or other on-the-job training, either paid or unpaid? (Y,N,Declined)

E47. Currently, are you enrolled in and attending high school, GED classes, post-high school vocational training, or college? (Y,N, Declined)

E48. Currently is there at least one adult in your life, other than your caseworker, to whom you can go for advice or emotional support? (Y,N,Declined)

E50. Have you ever referred yourself or has someone referred you for an alcohol or drug abuse assessment or counseling? (Y, N, Declined)

E51. Have you ever been confined in a jail, prison, correctional facility, or juvenile or community detention facility, in connection with allegedly committing a crime? (Y,N,Declined)

E52. Have you ever given birth or fathered any children that were born? (Y,N,Declined)

Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Positive early indication of readiness for transition to adulthood is defined as a youth who (1) is either employed part/full-time or had employment skills or was currently enrolled and attending school; (2) reported having a positive connection to an adult; (3) did not report ever having been referred to substance abuse counseling/assessment; (4) did not report a history of incarceration; and (5) did not report having given birth to or fathering a child.

Data are collected for the Federal Fiscal Year(FFY). The baseline year is 2011 FFY, which is October 1, 2010 to September 30, 2011.

The NYTD is a national, mandatory data collection system where States provide information to the Administration for Children and Families on two populations: (1) youth who receive independent living services paid for or provided by State agencies that administer John H. Chafee Foster Care Independence Programs (CFCIPs); and (2) triennial cohorts of youth in foster care at age 17, with follow-up information collected at ages 19 and 21. For purposes of this AH-4 objective, select data elements from surveyed cohorts of 17 year old youth are used to monitor and measure early indicators of readiness for transition to adulthood. The first cohort of 17 year olds was surveyed in Federal Fiscal Year 2011, with new, subsequent 17-year old cohorts to be surveyed every three years thereafter (FY2014, FY2017, FY2020, etc.).

National data are collected from 52 states (50 states plus the District of Columbia plus Puerto Rico).

Caveats and Limitations
In FFY 2011 53% of the eligible 17 year olds in foster care completed the survey. A bias analysis was conducted due to the low repsonse rates. There is no apparent demographic bias (race, ethnicity, or sex) in response/non-response rates. Response rates did, however, vary among States. With this systematic bias occurring in the first year of data collection, results may not be representative of the national population of 17 year old youth in foster care. It is expected that future data collection efforts will yield comparative, higher response rates across all states. While response rates ranged from 12% to 100%, almost three-quarters of the 52 States (71%) had response rates over the national average of 53%. Additionally, many youth (approximately 10% more) were surveyed more than 45 days after turning 17, but for federal requirements and analysis purposes these surveys are not included in the official response rates. NYTD is a multi-modal census survey. The mode of data collected may be different for each state that collects data. This can limit comparability of data between states.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

At launch the objective text was "AH-4 (Developmental) Increase the proportion of adolescents and young adults who transition to self-sufficiency from foster care". In 2014 this objective was moved to measureable, with the original objective text as a header, and the measured objective text as "To increase the proportion of adolescents in foster care who exhibit positive early indicators of readiness for transition to adulthood".

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. http://www.ndacan.cornell.edu/ (Publicly available NYTD datasets)
AH-5 Increase educational achievement of adolescents and young adults
AH-5.1 Increase the proportion of students who graduate with a regular diploma 4 years after starting 9th grade Leading Health Indicators

Leading Health Indicators are a subset of Healthy People 2020 objectives selected to communicate high-priority health issues.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Common Core of Data (CCD); Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (ED/NCES)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
74.9 (2007-2008)
Target
82.4
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of students who received high school diplomas-4 years after starting ninth grade in public schools
Denominator
For a class that started 9th grade four years prior to the year in which high school diplomas are awarded, the mean (average) of the sum of the number of students while it was in 8th grade, while it was in 9th grade, and while it was in 10th grade
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Leading Health Indicator
Social Determinants
Methodology Notes

The Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR) methodology is used for this measure. The AFGR is an estimate of the percentage of an entering freshman class graduating in 4 years. The incoming freshman class size is estimated by summing the enrollment in 8th grade in year 1, 9th grade for the following year, and 10th grade for the year after, and dividing by three. This averaging is intended to account for prior year retentions in 9th grade. For 2007–08, the AFGR equals the total number of diploma recipients in 2007-08 divided by the average membership of the 8th-grade class in 2003-04, the 9th grade class in 2004-05, and the 10th grade class in 2005-06.

Trend Issues
Estimates include any of the 50 states and the District of Columbia that reported all data elements. Exceptions from the 2007-08 school year were: data for the total line do not include South Carolina and estimates for race/ethnicity do not include data from Delaware or Nevada. Exceptions for the 2008-09 school year were: data for the total line were imputed for Nevada and California based on data from the previous school year and estimates for race/ethnicity do not include data from Nevada or Maine.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data
    http://nces.ed.gov/ccd

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act data (IDEA data); Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (ED/OSERS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Yes
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
59.1 (2007-2008)
Target
65.0
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of students, aged 14 to 21years, served under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Part B, who graduated with a diploma
Denominator
Number of students, aged 14 to 21 years, served under IDEA (DAC), Part B, who exited school because they graduated with a regular high school diploma, received a certificate,  reached maximum age, or dropped out
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

To determine the denominator, the following categories of students were not counted in the total: students who transferred to regular education and students who moved and were known to be continuing. The following categories were included in the denominator: students who graduated with a diploma, students who received a certificate, students who reached maximum age, students who dropped out, and students who died.

A certificate is a document that students who leave school can be issued if they did not meet the same standards for graduation as students without disabilities. Examples of certificates include a modified diploma, a certificate of completion, and an alternate degree that is not fully aligned with the State’s educational standards.

Caveats and Limitations
Data are reported by state and subject to differences in reporting and educational policies across states. For race and ethnicity data, children can only be reported in one race/ethnicity category. For data on limited English proficiency, children are reported based on the definition of limited English proficiency under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 20 U.S.C. Section 7801(A)(25). See Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Data site for information on the data, including definitions of race/ethnicity categories, limited English proficiency, and people with disabilities.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

This objective was revised in 2013 due to a change in programming. Students who died were added to the denominator to better align with how the Department of Education reports the measure. Also, the orginal baseline included data for 50 states, DC, Puerto Rico and outlying territories, while the revised baseline includes data for 50 states, DC and Puerto Rico. The original baseline was revised from 59.3 to 59.1 percent as a result of these changes. The target was adjusted from 65.2 to 65.0 percent to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Data Accountability Center (DAC): Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Data
    http://www.ideadata.org
AH-5.3 Increase the proportion of students whose reading skills are at or above the proficient achievement level for their grade

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP); Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (ED/NCES)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
33.0 (2009)
Target
36.3
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of fourth graders scoring at the proficiency level or higher for grade level in the reading skills test administered by the National Assessment of Educational Progress
Denominator
Number of fourth graders attending public or private schools
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The proficient achievement level is one of three National Assessment of Educational Progress (NEAP) achievement levels: basic, proficient, and advanced. Minimum cut-off scores are established for each achievement level by a standard setting process. The proficient achievement level represents solid academic performance for the grade level assessed.

The NAEP reading assessment measures the reading and comprehension skills of students in grades 4, 8, and 12 by asking them to read selected grade-appropriate passages and answer questions based on what they have read. The 2009 NAEP Reading Framework is based on the following definition of reading: Reading is an active and complex process that involves: understanding written text, developing and interpreting meaning, using meaning as appropriate to type of text, purpose, and situation.

Caveats and Limitations
Students are eligible for the National School Lunch Program (either free or reduced priced lunch) if their family income is at or below 185% if the poverty level. Data for English Language Learner cannot be generalized to the total population of English language learners--some students are unable to take the test. Students are classified by the school as having a disability. Students may have an individualized education plan (IEP) or a 504 plan. Data for students with disabilities cannot be generalized to the total population of disabled students--some students are unable to take the test.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. The Nations Report Card…the official site for results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress
    http://nationsreportcard.gov

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP); Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (ED/NCES)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
32.4 (2009)
Target
35.6
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of eighth graders scoring at the proficiency level or higher for grade level in the reading skills test administered by the National Assessment of Educational Progress
Denominator
Number of eighth graders attending public or private schools
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The proficient achievement level is one of three National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) achievement levels: basic, proficient, and advanced. Minimum cut-off scores are established for each achievement level by a standard setting process. The proficient achievement level represents solid academic performance for the grade level assessed.

The NAEP reading assessment measures the reading and comprehension skills of students in grades 4, 8, and 12 by asking them to read selected grade-appropriate passages and answer questions based on what they have read. The 2009 NAEP Reading Framework is based on the following definition of reading: Reading is an active and complex process that involves: understanding written text, developing and interpreting meaning, using meaning as appropriate to type of text, purpose, and situation.

Caveats and Limitations
Students are eligible for the National School Lunch Program (either free or reduced priced lunch) if their family income is at or below 185% if the poverty level. Data for English Language Learner cannot be generalized to the total population of English language learners--some students are unable to take the test. Students are classified by the school as having a disability. Students may have an individualized education plan (IEP) or a 504 plan. Data for students with disabilities cannot be generalized to the total population of disabled students--some students are unable to take the test.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. The Nations Report Card…the official site for results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress
    http://nationsreportcard.gov

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP); Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (ED/NCES)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
35.4 (2005)
Target
38.9
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of twelfth graders scoring at the proficiency level or higher for grade level in the reading skills test administered by the National Assessment of Educational Progress
Denominator
Number of twelfth graders attending public or private schools
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The proficient achievement level is one of three National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) achievement levels: basic, proficient, and advanced. Minimum cut-off scores are established for each achievement level by a standard setting process. The proficient achievement level represents solid academic performance for the grade level assessed.

The NAEP reading assessment measures the reading and comprehension skills of students in grades 4, 8, and 12 by asking them to read selected grade-appropriate passages and answer questions based on what they have read. The 2009 NAEP Reading Framework is based on the following definition of reading: Reading is an active and complex process that involves: understanding written text, developing and interpreting meaning, using meaning as appropriate to type of text, purpose, and situation. In addition, for grade 12, the NAEP reading assessment measures preparedness for postsecondary endeavors.

Caveats and Limitations
Students are eligible for the National School Lunch Program (either free or reduced priced lunch) if their family income is at or below 185% if the poverty level. Data for English Language Learner cannot be generalized to the total population of English language learners--some students are unable to take the test. Students are classified by the school as having a disability. Students may have an individualized education plan (IEP) or a 504 plan. Data for students with disabilities cannot be generalized to the total population of disabled students--some students are unable to take the test.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. The Nations Report Card…the official site for results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress
    http://nationsreportcard.gov
AH-5.4 Increase the proportion of students whose mathematics skills are at or above the proficient achievement level for their grade

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP); Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (ED/NCES)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
39.1 (2009)
Target
43.0
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of fourth graders scoring at the proficiency level or higher for grade level in the mathematics skills test administered by the National Assessment of Educational Progress
Denominator
Number of fourth graders attending public or private schools
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The proficient achievement level is one of three National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) achievement levels: basic, proficient, and advanced. Minimum cut-off scores are established for each achievement level by a standard setting process. The proficient achievement level represents solid academic performance for the grade level assessed.

The mathematics assessment was designed to measure students' knowledge of mathematics and their ability to apply that knowledge in problem-solving situations. The mathematics framework classifies assessment questions in two dimensions, content area and mathematical complexity, that are used to guide the assessment. Each question is designed to measure one of the five mathematics content areas: number properties and operations, measurement, geometry, data analysis, statistics, probability, and algebra.

Caveats and Limitations
Students are eligible for the National School Lunch Program (either free or reduced priced lunch) if their family income is at or below 185% if the poverty level. Data for English Language Learner cannot be generalized to the total population of English language learners--some students are unable to take the test. Students are classified by the school as having a disability. Students may have an individualized education plan (IEP) or a 504 plan. Data for students with disabilities cannot be generalized to the total population of disabled students--some students are unable to take the test.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. The Nations Report Card…the official site for results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress
    http://nationsreportcard.gov

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP); Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (ED/NCES)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
33.9 (2009)
Target
37.3
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of eighth graders scoring at the proficiency level or higher for grade level in the mathematics skills test administered by the National Assessment of Educational Progress
Denominator
Number of eighth graders attending public or private schools
Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The proficient achievement level is one of three National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) achievement levels: basic, proficient, and advanced. Minimum cut-off scores are established for each achievement level by a standard setting process. The proficient achievement level represents solid academic performance for the grade level assessed.

The mathematics assessment was designed to measure students' knowledge of mathematics and their ability to apply that knowledge in problem-solving situations. The mathematics framework classifies assessment questions in two dimensions, content area and mathematical complexity, that are used to guide the assessment. Each question is designed to measure one of the five mathematics content areas: number properties and operations, measurement, geometry, data analysis, statistics, probability, and algebra.

Caveats and Limitations
Students are eligible for the National School Lunch Program (either free or reduced priced lunch) if their family income is at or below 185% if the poverty level. Data for English Language Learner cannot be generalized to the total population of English language learners--some students are unable to take the test. Students are classified by the school as having a disability. Students may have an individualized education plan (IEP) or a 504 plan. Data for students with disabilities cannot be generalized to the total population of disabled students--some students are unable to take the test.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. The Nations Report Card…the official site for results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress
    http://nationsreportcard.gov

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP); Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (ED/NCES)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
23.0 (2005)
Target
25.3
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of twelfth graders scoring at the proficiency level or higher for grade level in the mathematics skills test administered by the National Assessment of Educational Progress
Denominator
Number of twelfth graders attending public or private schools
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The proficient achievement level is one of three National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) achievement levels: basic, proficient, and advanced. Minimum cut-off scores are established for each achievement level by a standard setting process. The proficient achievement level represents solid academic performance for the grade level assessed.

The mathematics assessment was designed to measure students' knowledge of mathematics and their ability to apply that knowledge in problem-solving situations. The mathematics framework classifies assessment questions in two dimensions, content area and mathematical complexity, that are used to guide the assessment. Each question is designed to measure one of the five mathematics content areas: number properties and operations, measurement, geometry, data analysis, statistics, probability, and algebra. At grade 12, the measurement and geometry content areas are combined into one for reporting purposes to reflect the fact that the majority of measurement topics suitable for grade 12 students are geometric in nature. Items are also classified by mathematical complexity: low, moderate and high complexity.

Caveats and Limitations
Students are eligible for the National School Lunch Program (either free or reduced priced lunch) if their family income is at or below 185% if the poverty level. Data for English Language Learner cannot be generalized to the total population of English language learners--some students are unable to take the test. Students are classified by the school as having a disability. Students may have an individualized education plan (IEP) or a 504 plan. Data for students with disabilities cannot be generalized to the total population of disabled students--some students are unable to take the test.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. The Nations Report Card…the official site for results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress
    http://nationsreportcard.gov

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH); Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Yes
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
26.4 (2008)
Target
29.0
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of adolescents aged 12 to17 years who always felt that their assigned school work was meaningful and important during the past 12 months
Denominator
Number of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who attended any type of school or were home-schooled during the past 12 months
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:

[NUMERATOR:]

During the past 12 months, how often did you feel that the school work you were assigned to do was meaningful and important?

  1. Always
  2. Sometimes
  3. Seldom
  4. Never
  5. Don't know/Refused
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Students are considered to feel that their assigned school work was meaningful and important during the past 12 months if they answered 'always' to the numerator question listed.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

During regular data collection and processing checks, errors were identified in the NSDUH data. These errors affected the data for Pennsylvania (2006-2010) and Maryland (2008-2009). These errors had minimal impact on the national estimates and no effect on direct estimates for the other 48 states and the District of Columbia. Comparing estimates for Pennsylvania, Maryland, the mid-Atlantic division, and the Northeast region were of most concern. As a result in 2013, the baseline value was revised from 26.6% to 26.4%. The target was adjusted from 29.3% to 29.0% to reflect the revised baseline using the original target-setting method.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Yes
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
5.0 (2008)
Target
To be determined
Numerator
Number of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who missed 11 or more whole school days during the preceding 12 months because of illness or injury
Denominator
Number of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who attended school during the preceding 12 months
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2008 National Health Interview Survey:

[NUMERATOR:]

DURING THE PAST 12 MONTHS, that is, since {fill1:12-month ref. date}, about how many days did {fill2: S.C. name} miss school because of illness or injury?

  1. None
  2. 1 - 240 days
  3. Did not go to school
  4. Refused
  5. Not ascertained
  6. Don't know
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Children who did not go to school in the past 12 months are excluded from the measure.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

In 2012, the baseline for this measure was revised from 14.6% to 5.0% due to a programming error that excluded students who missed 1 to 10 days of school from the denominator. The original target was changed from 13.1% to TBD until a new target can be set based on the target setting guidance for Healthy People 2020.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (CDC/NCHHSTP)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
68.6 (2006)
Target
75.5
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of public and private, elementary, middle and high schools that offer breakfast to students
Denominator
Number of public and private elementary, middle and high schools in the U.S.
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study:

[NUMERATOR:]

Does this school offer breakfast to students?

  1. Yes
  2. No
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Starting with the 2012 survey, the name of the SHPPS survey was changed from the School Health Policies and Programs Study to the School Health Policies and Practices Study.

This questionnaire was administered using computer assisted personal interview technology.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (CDC/NCHHSTP)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
22.7 (2009)
Target
20.4
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of students in grades 9 through 12 who report being offered, sold, or given an illegal drug on school property
Denominator
Number of students in grades 9 through 12 attending public or private schools
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System:

[NUMERATOR:]

During the past 12 months, has anyone offered, sold, or given you an illegal drug on school property?

  1. Yes
  2. No

Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH); Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics (HRSA/MCHB and CDC/NCHS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
86.4 (2007)
Target
95.0
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years whose parents report that they feel their child is usually or always safe at school
Denominator
Number of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who live in households, attend school, and are not home-schooled
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2007 National Survey on Children's Health:

[NUMERATOR:]

How often do you feel [he/she] is safe at school? Would you say never, sometimes, usually, or always?

  1. Never
  2. Sometimes
  3. Usually
  4. Always
Data Collection Frequency
Periodic
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Adolescents whose parents answer usually or always are included in this measure.

Data for children with special health care needs includes children and youth identified by parents’ reports that their child has a health problem expected to last at least 12 months and which requires prescription medication, more services than most children, special therapies, or which limits his or her ability to do things most children can do.

Trend Issues
The samples in 2003 and 2007 were drawn by random digit dial telephone sampling. The 2011/12 survey included the addition of cell phones to the sample. This has implications for the comparability of items between 2007 and 2011/12.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Numerator
Number of public and private middle and junior high schools that prohibit harassment based on a student’s perceived or actual sexual orientation or gender identity
Denominator
Number of public and private middle and junior high schools
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2010 School Health Profiles Study: Question9: Does your school engage in each of the following practices related to leabian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) youth? Mark yes or no for each practice. B. Prohibit harassment based on a student's perceived or actual sexual orientation or gender identity.

Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

Study conducted among schools in states/territories and large urban school districts. Data collected from self-administered questionnaires from principals and lead health education teachers. Sampling strategies included random, systematic and equal-probability to include representative samples for each jurisdiction. In 2008, 47 states, 4 territories and 20 cities participated. The data from states and cities that had response rates of 70% or greater and appropriate documentation (separately for the principal and teacher surveys) were weighted. The data were weighted to reflect the likelihood of principals or teachers being selected and to adjust for differing patterns of non-response.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS); Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (ED/NCES)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Baseline (Year)
17.2 (2007-2008)
Target
15.5
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of public schools in the United States that record a serious violent incident during a school year
Denominator
Number of public schools in the United States
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2007-08 School Survey on Crime and Safety:

[NUMERATOR:]

Please record the number of incidents that occurred at school during the [fill year] school year for the offenses listed below:

Data Collection Frequency
Biennial
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

A serious violent incident is defined as a report of any of the following offenses: Rape or attempted rape; sexual battery other than rape (including threatened rape); robbery either with or without a weapon; physical attack or fight with a weapon; threat of a physical attack with a weapon.

Data for primary schools include schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Data for middle schools include schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. Data for high schools include schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Data for combined schools include all combinations of grades, including K–12 schools other than primary, middle, and high schools.

Data for "city" include territories inside an urbanized area and inside a principal city and include large cities (populations of 250,000 or more), midsize cities (population less than 250,000 and greater than or equal to 100,000) and small cities (population less than 100,000). Data for "suburb" include territories outside a principal city and inside an urbanized area and include large suburbs (populations of 250,000 or more), midsize suburbs (population less than 250,000 and greater than or equal to 100,000) and small suburbs (population less than 100,000). Data for "town" include fringe towns (territories inside an urban cluster that are less than or equal to 10 miles from an urbanized area), distant towns (territories inside an urban cluster that are more than 10 miles and less than or equal to 35 miles from an urbanized area), and remote towns (territories inside an urban cluster that are more than 35 miles from an urbanized area). Data for "rural" include fringe rural areas (Census-defined rural territory that is less than or equal to 5 miles from an urbanized area, as well as rural territory that is less than or equal to 2.5 miles from an urban cluster), distant rural areas (Census-defined rural territory that is more than 5 miles but less than or equal to 25 miles from an urbanized area, as well as rural territory that is more than 2.5 miles but less than 10 miles from an urban cluster), and remote rural areas (Census-defined rural territory that are more than 25 miles from an urbanized 10 miles from an urban cluster).

Percent minority enrollment is the percent combined enrollment of Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. 1. Robers, S., Kemp, J., and Truman, J. (2013). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2012 (NCES 2013-036/NCJ 241446). National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, DC
  2. Dinkes, R., Kemp, J., and Baum, K. (2009). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2009 (NCES 2010–012/ NCJ 228478). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, DC.
    http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010012.pdf
  3. National Center for Education Statistics: School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS)
    http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/ssocs
  4. SCHOOL SURVEY ON CRIME AND SAFETY 2007–08 SCHOOL YEAR PRINCIPAL QUESTIONNAIRE
AH-11 Reduce adolescent and young adult perpetration of, and victimization by, crimes

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR); Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation (DOJ/FBI)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 100,000 
Baseline (Year)
444.0 (2008)
Target
399.6
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of arrests of juveniles aged 10 to 17 years and young adults aged 18 to 24 years for crimes included in the Violent Crime Index (murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault)
Denominator
Total number of juveniles aged 10 to 17 years and young adults aged 18 to 24 years in the residential population
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR) is a nationwide, cooperative statistical effort of more than 17,000 city, university and college, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies voluntarily reporting data on crimes brought to their attention. The Violent Crime Index includes the following offenses: Murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. These are Part I offenses and are serious crimes by nature and/or volume.

The UCR Program uses the following method to estimate crime in the case of missing reports at the Metropolitan Statistical Area, state, and national levels. For agencies that did not report data, the UCR Program staff assign the same percental crime volumes based on the crime statistics of similar areas within a state. The UCR Program staff consider the size of an agency, type of jurisdiction, and geographic location in the estimation process. The UCR Program staff use a similar procedure for estimating the number of arrests for the Nation.

Caveats and Limitations
Arrest statistics are a measure of flow into the justice system. They report the number of arrests that law enforcement agencies make in a given year but do not represent the number of individuals arrested or the number of crimes committed. In addition, arrests are classified by the most serious offense charged in that arrest using a defined hierarchical system.
Trend Issues
In 2008, law enforcement agencies active in the UCR Program represented 94.9 percent of the total population. The coverage amounted to 96.0 percent of the population in Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 87.6 percent of the population in cities outside metropolitan areas, and 90.0 percent of the population in nonmetropolitan counties. However, when the number of months for which reports were submitted is taken into consideration, the coverage indicator for 2008 was 76%. When the coverage indicator equals 100%, all law enforcement agencies report for all 12 months.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR); Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation (DOJ/FBI)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 100,000 
Baseline (Year)
1,526.7 (2008)
Target
1,374.0
Target-Setting Method
10 percent improvement
Numerator
Number of arrests of juveniles aged 10 to 17 years and young adults aged 18 to 24 years for crimes included in the Property Crime Index (burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson)
Denominator
Total number of juveniles aged 10 to 17 years and young adults aged 18 to 24 years in the residential population
Data Collection Frequency
Annual
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR) is a nationwide, cooperative statistical effort of more than 17,000 city, university and college, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies voluntarily reporting data on crimes brought to their attention. The Property Crime Index includes the following offenses: burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. These are Part I offenses and are serious crimes by nature and/or volume.

The UCR Program uses the following method to estimate crime in the case of missing reports at the Metropolitan Statistical Area, state, and national levels. For agencies that did not report data, the UCR Program staff assign the same percental crime volumes based on the crime statistics of similar areas within a state. The UCR Program staff consider the size of an agency, type of jurisdiction, and geographic location in the estimation process. The UCR Program staff use a similar procedure for estimating the number of arrests for the Nation.

Caveats and Limitations
Arrest statistics are a measure of flow into the justice system. They report the number of arrests that law enforcement agencies make in a given year but do not represent the number of individuals arrested or the number of crimes committed. In addition, arrests are classified by the most serious offense charged in that arrest using a defined hierarchical system.
Trend Issues
In 2008, law enforcement agencies active in the UCR Program represented 94.9 percent of the total population. The coverage amounted to 96.0 percent of the population in Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 87.6 percent of the population in cities outside metropolitan areas, and 90.0 percent of the population in nonmetropolitan counties. However, when the number of months for which reports were submitted is taken into consideration, the coverage indicator for 2008 was 76%. When the coverage indicator equals 100%, all law enforcement agencies report for all 12 months.

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
percent 
Numerator
City police and county police and sheriffs’ departments that report gang activity in their jurisdiction
Denominator
All city police and county police and sheriffs’ departments
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The nationally representative sample includes the following law enforcement agencies: All police departments that serve cities with populations of 50,000 or more (large cities); All suburban county police and sheriffs’ departments (suburban counties); A randomly selected sample of police departments that serve cities with populations between 2500 and 49,999 (smaller cities); A randomly selected sample of police departments that serve cities with populations between 2500 and 49,999 (smaller cities); A randomly selected sample of rural county police and sheriffs’ departments (rural counties).

The survey defines a youth gang as “a group of youths or young adults in your jurisdiction that you or other responsible persons in your agency or community are willing to identify as a ‘gang.’” The definition excludes motorcycle gangs, hate or ideology groups, prison gangs, and exclusively adult gangs .

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Highlights of the 2008 National Youth Gang Survey
    http://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/Survey-Analysis
  2. National Youth Gang Survey Analysis

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS); Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (DOJ/BJS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
No
Measure
per 1,000 
Numerator
Persons between the ages of 12 and 24 who report having experienced any crime of violence during the past year, including rape, sexual assault, personal robbery or assault
Denominator
U.S. civilian residential population between the ages of 12 and 24
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

The National Crime Victimization Survey, previously called the National Crime Survey (NCS), has been collecting data on personal and household victimization since 1973. An ongoing survey of a nationally representative sample of residential addresses, the NCVS is the primary source of information on the characteristics of criminal victimization and on the number and types of crimes not reported to law enforcement authorities.

Survey estimates are derived from a stratified, multi-stage cluster sample. The end sampling unit is a housing unit. Each member of the household who is at least 12 years old is directly interviewed a total of 7 times at 6-month intervals over the course of 3 years. Because this survey is continuous, a new rotation group enters the sample every 6 months, replacing a group being phased out after having been in the sample for three years. In 2007, the number of households interviewed was 41,000 with a response rate of 90% and the number of persons interviewed was 73,650 with a response rate of 86%. The estimation procedure adjusts for unequal probabilities of selection and observation (non-response), and includes a ratio adjustment to known population totals based on adjusted counts from the 1990 census.

Data are collected by face-to-face interview, telephone interview, and computer-assisted telephone interview. Crimes of violence include rape, sexual assault, personal robbery or assault.

References

Additional resources about the objective.

  1. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
    http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245