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MICH-23 Data Details

MICH-23 Reduce the proportion of breastfed newborns who receive formula supplementation within the first 2 days of life

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Immunization Survey (NIS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases and National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCIRD and CDC/NCHS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Baseline (Year)
24.2 (2006)
Target-Setting Method
Projection/trend analysis
Number of caregivers of breastfed infants born in cohort year (for current baseline, year 2006) who indicate their infant received formula supplementation within the first 2 days of life
Number of children aged 19-35 months born in one calendar year (e g , baseline refers to the 2006 birth cohort) who were breastfeeding at 2 days of life
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2006 National Immunization Survey


Was [child] ever breastfed or fed breast milk?

  1. Yes
  2. No

How old was [child's name] when (he/she) was first fed formula?

  1. ≤ 2 days of age
  2. Other
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Not applicable
Methodology Notes

If the response to the first question (Was child ever breastfed or fed breast milk?) is No, the child is not considered a breastfed newborn and is not included in the denominator.

The National Immunization Survey (NIS) is conducted annually and collects data on children through age 35 months, and enables CDC to calculate breastfeeding rates each year. Because children are 19-35 months of age at the time of the NIS interview, each cross-sectional survey includes children born in three different calendar years. Using a computer-generated list, the NIS identifies households across the United States with children aged 19–35 months and interviews the person who is most knowledgeable about the child’s immunization status (“caregiver”). Starting January 2003, all respondents to the household telephone survey were asked questions related to breastfeeding, with modification of breastfeeding questions in 2004 and 2006. Survey years are combined to calculate breastfeeding by year of child’s birth (cohort) instead of year in which the participant was surveyed. To calculate breastfeeding indicators by year of child birth, data are combined across all available survey years.


Additional resources about the objective.

  1. Smith PJ, Zhao Z, Wolter KM, Singleton JA, Nuorti JP. Age-period-cohort analyses of public health data collected from independent serial cross-sectional complex probability sample surveys. Seattle, WA: Joint Statistical Meeting; 2006. Available at