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MICH-21.3 Data Details

MICH-21.3 Increase the proportion of infants who are breastfed at 1 year

About the Data

Description of the data source, numerator, denominator, survey questions, and other relevant details about the national estimate.

National Data Source
National Immunization Survey (NIS); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases and National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCIRD and CDC/NCHS)
Changed Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch
Baseline (Year)
22.7 (2006)
Target-Setting Method
Projection/trend analysis
Number of caregivers of children born in a cohort year who indicate their child was breastfed any amount at 1 year of age
Number of children aged 19-35 months born in the same cohort year
Questions Used to Obtain the National Baseline Data

From the 2006 National Immunization Survey:


Was [child] ever breastfed or fed breast milk?

  1. Yes
  2. No

How old was [child's name] when (he/she) completely stopped breastfeeding or being fed breast milk?

  1. ≥1 year
  2. Still breastfeeding
Data Collection Frequency
Comparable Healthy People 2010 Objective
Retained from HP2010 objective
Methodology Notes

Using a computer-generated list, the National Immunization Survey (NIS) identifies households across the United States with children aged 19–35 months and interviews the person who is most knowledgeable about the child’s immunization status (“caregiver”). Survey years are combined to calculate breastfeeding statistics by year of child’s birth (cohort) instead of the year in which the participant was surveyed. To calculate breastfeeding indicators by year of child birth, data are combined across all relevant survey years. Because children are 19—35 months of age at the time of the parent interview, each survey year represents children born over three years. For example, breastfeeding data for children in the 2006 birth cohort are obtained from NIS 2007, 2008, and 2009.

Revision History

Any change to the objective text, baseline, target, target-setting method or data source since the Healthy People 2020 launch.

Description of Changes Since the Healthy People 2020 Launch

In 2012, the word 'breastfeed' was changed to 'breastfed' to reflect the data collected in the survey. Specifically, the NIS data relate to infants who are breastfed, not mothers who breastfeed.


Additional resources about the objective.

  1. CDC. NIS survey methods. Available at: (Accessed March 21, 2010.)
  2. Smith PJ, Zhao Z, Wolter KM, Singleton JA, Nuorti JP. Age-period-cohort analyses of public health data collected from independent serial cross-sectional complex probability sample surveys. Seattle, WA: Joint Statistical Meeting; 2006. Available at