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Maternal, Infant, and Child Health

Latest Data

Explore the latest data for the LHI topic Maternal, Infant, and Child Health.
Download the latest Maternal, Infant, and Child Health data in spreadsheet format [XLSX - 599 KB]

Where We’ve Been and Where We’re Going

From 2002 to 2012, the total percentage of live births that were delivered preterm decreased by 5.0%, from 12.1% of live births to 11.5%. The percentage of infants born preterm rose by more than 33% from 1981 to 2006, but has been down each year from 2007 to 2012.

From 2000 to 2010, the infant mortality rate has decreased by 11.6%, from 6.9 deaths per 1,000 live births, to 6.1. Several groups experienced lower rates of infant deaths and preterm births compared to the overall rates, including female infants, and infants born to Asian or Pacific Islander or married mothers.

Leading Health Indicators

Explore the latest data and disparities for each indicator.
Infant Deaths (MICH-1.3)
Preterm births (MICH-9.1)

Infant Deaths (MICH-1.3)

  • Healthy People 2020 objective MICH-1.3 tracks the rate of infant deaths per 1,000 live births that occur within the first year of life (infant mortality rate).
    • HP2020 Baseline: In 2006, 6.7 infant deaths per 1,000 live births occurred within the first year of life.
    • HP2020 Target: 6.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, a 10% improvement over the baseline
    • Over the past decade, the infant mortality rate decreased by 11.6% between 2000 and 2010, from 6.9 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to 6.1.
  • Among racial/ethnic groups, infants of Asian or Pacific Islander mothers had the lowest mortality rate, 4.3 per 1,000 live births in 2010.
    • The mortality rates experienced by infants of black or African American non-Hispanic, American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic and white non-Hispanic mothers were 11.5, 8.3, 5.3, and 5.2 per 1,000 live births, respectively.
    • The rate for infants of black or African American non-Hispanic mothers was more than 2.5 times the infant mortality rate of the best group; and the rate for infants of American Indian or Alaska Native mothers was nearly twice the best group rate.

    Rate of Infant Deaths by Birthweight, 2010

    The rate of infant deaths for very low birthweight infants was over 100 times the rate for infants with birthweights of 2,500g or more.

    SOURCE: Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS.

  • Females had a lower infant mortality rate than males (5.6 versus 6.7 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2010).
  • Infants of married mothers experienced a lower mortality rate than infants of unmarried mothers (4.7 versus 8.3 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2010).
  • Infants of mothers aged 30–34 years experienced the lowest infant mortality rate, 5.0 per 1,000 live births in 2010, among age groups. Rates experienced by infants of mothers in other age groups were:
    • 13.5 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged less than 15 years; more than 2.5 times the best group rate
    • 8.8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 15–19 years; nearly twice the rate experienced by the best group
    • 7.1 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 20–24 years; nearly 1.5 times the best group rate
    • 5.5 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 25–29 years
    • 5.9 infant deaths per 1,000 live births to mothers aged 35 years and older
  • In 2010, the infant mortality rate was 222.2 per 1,000 live births for very low birthweight (less than 1,500 grams) infants, compared to 2.1 for infants weighing 2,500g or more, and 13.4 for infants weighing 1,500–2,499g. The rate for very low birthweight infants was over 100 times the rate for infants with birthweights of 2,500g or more.

Endnotes:

  • All comparisons described are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.
  • Data for this objective are available annually and come from the Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS.
  • The terms “Hispanic or Latino” and “Hispanic” are used interchangeably in this report.

Preterm births (MICH-9.1)

  • Healthy People 2020 objective MICH-9.1 tracks the percentage of infants born preterm (before 37 completed weeks of gestation).
    • HP2020 Baseline: 12.7 %, or over half a million live births, were preterm in 2007.
    • HP2020 Target: 11.4% of live births, a 10% improvement over the baseline
    • Between 2002 and 2007, the total preterm birth rate increased by 9.5%, from 11.6% of live births to 12.7%. However, the rate then declined 9.5% between 2007 and 2012, from 12.7% to 11.5%.
  • Among racial and ethnic groups, the lowest percentage of preterm live births delivered in 2012 was experienced by Asian or Pacific Islander mothers (10.2%).
    • The proportion of preterm live births delivered to black or African American non-Hispanic mothers was 16.5% in 2012, more than 1.5 times the rate experienced by the best group.
    • Rates for American Indian or Alaska Native, Hispanic, and white non-Hispanic mothers in 2012 were 13.3%, 11.6%, and 10.3%, respectively.
  • A smaller percentage of females were delivered preterm than males (11.1% versus 12.0% in 2012).

Rate of Preterm Births by Race/Ethnicity (of Mother), 2012

SOURCE: Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set, CDC/NCHS.

Accessible Version

  • The percentage of married mothers delivering preterm live births was lower than unmarried mothers (10.3% versus 13.4% in 2012).
  • Mothers aged 25–29 years experienced the lowest percentage of preterm births, 10.5% in 2012, among age groups. Percentages experienced by mothers in other age groups were:
    • 20.8% of the live births among mothers aged less than 15 years were preterm, about twice the rate experienced by the best group
    • 13.2% of the live births among mothers aged 15–19 years were preterm, nearly 1.5 times the best group rate
    • 11.5% of the live births among mothers 20–24 years were preterm
    • 11.0% of the live births among mothers aged 30–34 years were preterm
    • 13.6% of the live births among mothers aged 35 years and older were preterm, nearly 1.5 times the best group rate

Endnotes:

  • All comparisons described are statistically significant at the 0.05 level of significance.
  • Data for this objective are available annually and come from the National Vital Statistics System-Natality (NVSS-N), CDC/NCHS.
  • The terms “Hispanic or Latino” and “Hispanic” are used interchangeably in this report.

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